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Research and Citation

You know you have to cite your work, but you're not sure how. Take a look at this guide to help get you started.

Common Types of Chicago Citations

What is Chicago? What is Turabian? How are they different?

The Chicago Manual of Style is a style guide published by the University of Chicago Press. It is widely used in academia and scholarly publishing. Kate Turabian wrote "A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations : Chicago style for students and researchers", which is exactly what it sounds like; a version of Chicago that is geared towards students. In practice, little differs between the two style except how you number your notes. 

In Chicago, each note begins with the corresponding number followed by a period and then a space. In Turabian, the footnote or endnote begins with the corresponding superscript number.

You should use whichever your professor requires. 


Notes & Bibliography

In Chicago and Turabian, you'll use either a footnote or an endnote whenever you use a resource. As each name implies, footnotes go at the bottom of the page where the source was references. Endnotes are compiled at the end of your paper. Use Word's insert footnote feature to make this easier. Every time you reference a source, you need to use a note. If you note the same source many times in a row, you can type “Ibid.” for all but the first. Your professor may require one or the other, or let you decide. Don't choose footnotes just to add to the legnth of your paper, though- all professors are wise to this by now. 

In addition to endnotes or footnotes, you'll also need a bibliography. Your bibliography might look quite like an endnotes page, but the entires are written differently. You need a bibliography entry for each source, but no matter how many times you cite a source, it only need appear in your bibliography once. 

 Read more about notes, bibliographies, and formatting at the OWL @ Purdue...


How to cite: An Article in a scholarly journal:

N: First name Middle name last name, "Title of Article," Title of Journal Volume#, no. Issue# (year of publication): page number.

B: Last name, First name Middle name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume#, no. issue # (year of publication): page range.

If you accessed the material through a database or online, add the date you accessed the source and a stable url. Here's an example: 

N:      1.  John Jones, "Silent Poetry," Journal of Really Serious Poetry 34, no. 2 (2005): 182, accessed July 20, 2010,

B:       Jones, John. "Silent Poetry." Journal of Really Serious Poetry 34, no. 2 (2005): 181-195. Accessed July 20, 2010.

Read more about citing articles at the OWL @ Purdue...


How to cite: A Book

N:      First name Last name, Title of book (Location: Publisher, year), page. 

B:       Last name, First name. Title of book. Location: Publisher, year.

Here's an example with multiple authors:

N:      2. Gary Grey, Trish McCary and William Tory, The Art of Carving with Ice Skates: A Memoir (Dallas: Scribner, 2010), 174.

B:      Grey, Gary, McCary, Trish and Tory, William. The Art of Carving with Ice Skates: A Memoir. Dallas: Scribner, 2010.

 Read more about citing books at the OWL  @ Purdue...


Things to remember:

When you borrow directly from the the text, you must put the borrowed words in quotation marks (" "), and then provide a citation. Whenever possible, paraphrase the ideas into your own words, but you still provide a citation.

Chicago Citation Builders

Use the following citation builders to quickly and easily build citations for you papers. Keep in mind though that no citation builder is perfect, and it is your responsibility to provide accurate citations to your papers. Make sure you know enough about your citation style to spot any errors. 

Microsoft Word and the EBSCO database both have integrated citation building features.