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Writing & Citing


In 2020, APA published an updated edition of their style manual:
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition.

Please check with your instructors to clarify which edition you are required to use for your class, 6th or 7th.

This guide provides an overview of using the 6th edition.

If you are using the 7th edition, the library has a copy of the manual on reserve for you to use.
You can also get citation examples and helpful information here:


APA Style

Common Types of APA Citations

APA Works Cited Page

How to cite: 
An article in a scholarly journal

Author's Last Name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume#(Issue#), page range.

If you accessed the material through a database or online, add the document identification number to the end of your citation, or add "Retrived from url" Here's an example:

Jones, J. (2005). Silent poetry. Journal of Really Serious Poetry, 34(2), 181-195. doi:10.1000/182


Jones, J. (2005). Silent poetry. Journal of Really Serious Poetry, 34(2), 181-195. Retrieved from

Read more about citing articles at the OWL @ Purdue...


How to cite: A Book

Author's last name, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of work: Subtitle gets a capital letter also. Location: Publisher. 

Here's an example with multiple authors:

Grey, G., McCary, T., & Tory, W. (2010). The art of carving with ice skates: A memoir. Dallas, TX: Scribner.

 Read more about citing books at the OWL @ Purdue... 


In text Citations

There are a few ways to cite your sources in the text of your paper. Perhaps the easiest is to apply a parenthetical notation including the author's last name and the date for the source you reference. If you quote directly, you'll also need a page number. "That might look like this" (Jones, 2010, p. 45).

However, when you use this method to paraphrase it isn't always clear where your thoughts end and the referenced thoughts begin. Whenever possible, introduce your source in your sentence: Jones (2010) talks about silent poetry as if it were aloud. When you do this, you can include only the year, because the name is already mentioned. This also makes it clearer to your reader where the borrowing begins, and ends. If you paraphrase, you are not required to include a page number.

Things to remember:

When you borrow directly from the the text, you must put the borrowed words in quotation marks (" "), and provide a citation. Whenever possible, paraphrase the ideas into your own words and still provide a citation.

In-text citations always go after the quotation marks if you are quoting, but before the period at the end of your sentence. 

Levels of Heading (APA Manual Section 3.03)

Headings can often be one of the most frustrating and confusing parts of a paper in APA style. However, they don't have to be. Utilize a number of these resources to assist in getting your headings correct.

APA Style Blog 

Purdue Owl Headings

Mount Royal University Sample Paper with Headings 

Citation Styles and Sample Paper

Basic Citation Styles
This link is a recreation of Table 6.1 (p. 177) of the APA Manual for how to do in-text citations.

Sample Paper in APA Style

This paper is directly from the Publication Manual and provides a good overview of what a final paper should look like.